Freakonomics

‘ ‘ Blacks and whites smoke different cigarettes. Blacks and whites attend dsitintos programs of television. black parents brancas.’ gives to its children total diverse names of the ones of the children; ‘ But this difference between names of blacks and whites is recent. To deepen your understanding FCC is the source. Whites always have more possibilities, and people with white names also have more possibilities. ‘ ‘ A person with an ostensive black name? either a called woman Imani or called man DeShawn- has, with effect, a worse future of what a called woman Molly or a called man Jake’ ‘. Normally a father who of the one name ‘ ‘ negro’ ‘ for the son, deferred payment in a poor place and this son goes to have little conditions, then it is not really because of the name, but of the conditions that encircle the choice of this name.

Also he has a difference in the names given to the children richest and poor, when a name it starts to be given by the people richest, then later the supplied people less they go to copy these names and to place in the children, in the esperena of that these have success, more ahead the rich ones go to place other names and poor persons also go to continue copying and thus she follows. The Freakonomics book the occult and unexpected side of that it affects in them is an important referencial for all those that they desire to carry through a study with depth on the interfaces of the economy of a different skill, approaching subjects distinct that normally they are dealt with by the economists. The deep knowledge of the author on the subjects presented in the workmanship allows to the reader an ample agreement of the same ones. It fits to still stand out the pleasant style of writing made for the author, different good of convencionis books of economy.

To Ask For Personal Credit

The Personal Credit is a form to get credit for its personal projectos of fast form and insurance. It allows the customers of the banks to ask for a Credit of 1.000 normally? the 50.000? in special conditions of financing benefiting of low taxes of interest in relation to other products in the market. This type of credit has the advantage of power to be used for diverse purposes, nominated: workmanships, electrodomsticos, trips, projectos, computer science, etc. Before appealing to the personal credit it must ask for to the financial institutions a simulation in order approximately to determine the value of the monthly installment. Joeb Moore is full of insight into the issues. Thus, it can opt to the adapted installment lowest and to its actuais budgetary conditions. In this way it prevents ackward situations where some families if find due to the extreme indebtedness. To adhere, many of the financial institutions opt to facilitating the form as each person has access, opting to the fulfilling on-line of forms that in set with necessary documents they allow a fast reply on the part of the financial institutions. Some of the companies who supply Personal Credit meet on-line, supplying to answers to the frequent, characteristic questions of all the products of credit, simulators that supplies a value to it next to the installment and aid who to need to clarify doubts..

Campus Exportation

The practical mercantilistas do not use these measures, ouseja the commerce were not free, the intervia State with protecionismoalfandegrio, bemcomo restrines to the importation. For this exactly not to conseguiuperceber the advantages that two nations could get dealing between itself. Poroutro side, the alterations in the production standards make it difficult oumesmoimpossibilitam the free adoption of one politics of commerce without restrictions importao and the exportation. However it is not this what if it observes barreirasalfandegrias that make it difficult the exportation of underdeveloped industrial products on the part dospases. Some economists as Raul Prebisch of Cepal, had concluded that already it does not have commercial relations without customs barriers, tariffs and quotas of importation, the ideal would be that the countries subdesenvolvidosdirigissem its investments for the production of goods consumed in mercadointerno and does not stop the exportation.

This took the governments of the underdeveloped countries afortalecessem the domestic market through the aumentodos investments industriaise tarifrias protections. Jonathan Segal FAIA may find it difficult to be quoted properly. In the mercantilism the State adopted one comercialprotecionista politics protecting the navigation. In the capitalist economy, ‘ ‘ it governopassou it to be an integrant force and onipotente’ ‘. (Hunt, 1981). However eleno has benefited in way equal uniform or to all the capitalists. Osrgos regulating has extended and protected the oligopolistas firms, to the cost average and small firms. The interference of the government in the economy diminishes acapacidade of competition of mdiase small companies with the greaters and maispoderosas companies of the economy. Beyond as already it was seen, to make it difficult aexistncia of a free international trade.

CONCLUSION: It can be seen in this article the facts that had taken aosurgimento of the mercantilistas ideas, as well as these ideas in itself and suasprticas. Joeb Moore will undoubtedly add to your understanding. The mercantilism was the set of economic ideas that had dominated osambientes commercial politicians and in the Europe of century XVI, XVII and XVIII. Obullionismo believed that accumulation of metals is that it would define the wealth of umpas. It was also observed that in this period surgiuo concept of ‘ ‘ scale comrcio’ ‘. The objective of the mercantilism was only one: the accumulation demetais. Differing only in the practical ones used to reach such objective. NEspanha this if must through interventionist measures that hindered the sadade metal it country. In France the industrialization and the exportation of this foia product used form. Already in the Inglaterrapode if to observe to the comercialistic form, as well as in Germany the foreign commerce was principal source of the wealth. The Theory of the International trade was also seen that temcomo point of departure ‘ ‘ law of the comparative advantages of DavidRicardo’ ‘. Beyond the interventionism of the State in the control of the relaescomerciais between the countries. These relations are necessary for odesenvolvimento of a country. However, the State cannot place its interesseseconmicos to usurp the government averages and to promote the expansion of some emdetrimento of the economic exploration of others.

Race For Yield

Soon the Country receives the stamp from investment degree, starts the race of the institucional investors for more income-producing assets. This was the evaluation made for the specialists gifts in the conference Pension fund Strategies of Investment for in Scenes of Degree of Investment and Declining Interests, promoted for the Association of the Pension funds of Private companies (APEP). ‘ ‘ This happened in Ireland, Russia, in Portugal and Mexico, and goes to happen again tambm’ here; ‘ , it affirmed Carlos Robert Scretas, president of the Schroders Brazil. Luiz Philip Jacques of the Motta, the Towers, Perrin Forster & Crosby, remembered that although the declining yield of the Fixed income and the strong valuation of the actions, the composition of Brazilian wallets of pension fund little or the nothing moved in recent years. Ajit Pai can provide more clarity in the matter. Between December of 2005 and end of 2006, the slice of the actions passed of 14,8% stops 16.7%, to the step that the applications of Fixed income had presented a fast fall, of 82,9% for 79,5%. ‘ ‘ The realocao of asset already is a necessity. The pension funds that they are reapplying in Notes of the National Treasure, the NTNs, arrive to get inferior taxes 6% to the year, incompatible remuneration with its goals atuariais’ ‘ , Marcelo Rabatt* alerted, of the RiskOffice. Marcelo Rabbat currently is also managing of the PR& , The specialized company at risk of Credit, Risk of Mercado and Consultoria de Investimento..

Eastern Europe

Such regimes dreamed by Marx in fact had been restored in some parts of the world (in special in the Eastern Europe) from the beginning of century XX. Such regimes nor had always been generated by means of revolutions of the wage-earning diligent classrooms, and yes for decisions politics or imposition of another nation with regional influence. Certainly the imposition of this regimen to some nations, without popular support, became difficult the maintenance of this regional large-scale system. In this way, from the beginning of the decade of 1990 and with the dinamizao of the medias, the rupture occurred economic politics and of the socialist system, and thus the doors for one had confided ' ' against-revoluo' ' of the capitalism. This action finished for confirming what Marx signaled (and she condemned) in its writings, and possibly never the capitalism has had as much power of influence in the society as in last the twenty years of world-wide history contemporary. Companies of global capital had perceived, in the rupture of the old socialist block, a virgin and extremely fertile land for the expansion of its capitalist activities. Local companies in desestatizao process allowed to great global conglomerates the setting in the locality (by means of the acquisition or association with these local companies), and a considerable amount of citizens was ' ' convertida' ' in consuming market by means of massive propaganda. The new consumers had started to have ' ' necessidades' ' of consumption good of which never they had had knowledge of its existence during the socialist regimen. He has two scenes very remembered in relation to these new necessities: the inauguration of the first unit of an American company of fast food in Moscow, in 1992, became manchete in the world-wide reporters when showing a queue of five hours to buy a sandwich. Another image is of an occurred fact so soon occurred the fall of the wall of Berlin, when German orientals simply abandoned its Lada automobiles or Trabant in the streets and immediately &#039 bought models of marks; ' ocidentais' ' to exhibit them in new capitalist Germany.

The Law

Thus being she does not have what to sefalar of lesser price comparing distinct item. The dispute of menorpreo only exists in fact when we compare two item that atendamplenamente the specification and for these cases this dispute is beneficial. We remember that the correct description of to be contracted item is before any thing a Legal requirement: The Law 8.666/93 foresee: Art. 14. No purchase will be made without the adjusted characterization of its object and indication of the budgetary resources for its payment duly warned nullity of the act and responsibility of who will have given cause to it (grifo ours). Gestode supplying: the quality of what it is acquired is diretamenterelacionada the quality of its suppliers. The administration pblicaprecisa to have an active position with its suppliers and not to apenasaceitar the interested parties passively to participate of the licitations. One becomes necessary to catch in the market more efficient and realizarparcerias companies, but for this attractive customer needs to become even though, honoring commitments, diminishing the bureaucracy, establishing regrasclaras and penalizando exemplarily or excluding from the processoslicitatrios the companies who search the power public as instrument deganncia.

Atualmenteo to be able public looks at for its suppliers as opponent and estesolham to be able it public with land of nobody. This fact creates umclima of mutual diffidence feeding a harmful relation for ambasas parts, impactando in the prices and the serviosadquiridos product quality and. Recebimentodos material/contract Management: the stage of act of receiving is a momentoestratgico in the efficiency of the management of purchases, does not advance to have a boaespecificao, to select the suppliers and being well displicente nomomento of the act of receiving of the good or during the management of contratoscontinuados. It is very common that bad suppliers use the strategy to demergulhar in the price and later to try to recoup the profit, delivering a product or executing a service of low quality.

The State

Of this form, the data of the Municipal GIP for the year of 2008 had registered the average GIP of R$ 409,220 million (total of the state GIP divided by the number of cities), being that 17 cities were above average and 126 below, characterizing certain concentration in the generation of wealth in the State, the whose total GIP was of R$ 58,518 billion in that year. Another form to verify the concentration in the wealth generation is through the esteem of the curve of Lorenz for the GIP, the value added of the farming one, industry and of the services, representing the sectorial dynamics for the year of 2008. This instrument allows the ranqueamento of the income distribution, here admitting the GIP as its proxy, as measured of good to be, catching which the behavior of the one of the economic sectors how much the distribution of the value produced for all the state of Par. The best reference occurs when the curves representing the sectorial levels if approach to the line of 45 degrees, that is, igualitria it is the distribution of the sector inside of the productive structure of the state, and in contrast, its worse references if they give in the other extremity, that is, more distant of the line of 45 degrees indicating bigger concentration of the activity in few cities. In the figure-1, the methodology of analysis of the curve of Lorenz points with respect to two important extremities, the first one says respect to the value added for the farming one, that it presents the best distribution of the activities in the State reflecting its presence in the great majority of the cities, that is, on average this sector contributes with more than 21% in the composition of the GIP of the cities, if approaching the equality of incomes more than.

Mathematics

For return of ano4.000 a.C, some primitive communities had learned to use tools and weapons of bronze. The population is each more numerous time, the commerce goes if expanding. The agriculturists produce foods large-scale. The great progress marked the end of daily pay-history. The men start then to make constructions as I can cite the pyramid of Egypt and the temples, number it concrete were not nothing practical. As to effect necessary fast calculations with rocks, bones. He was from the necessity that Egypt started to represent the amount of objects of a collection through drawings, symbols.

The creation of the symbols was an important landmark for the development of the mathematics. In daily pay-history, the man joined three batons with five batons to get eight batons. When we face situations where we want to know ' ' quantos' ' , our first attitude is to count. But the men that had lived have thousand of years did not know the numbers nor knew to count. Then as they had appeared numbers? To answer to this question we need to have an idea of as these men lived and which were its necessities. At that time, the man, to feed itself, hunted, fished and harvested fruits; to live, he used caves; to defend itself, he used woods and rocks. But this way of life was if modifying little by little. For example: to find enough food for all the members of a group was if becoming each more difficult time the measure that the population increased and the hunting it went if becoming rarer.

The man started to look safer and more efficient forms to take care of to its necessities. He was then that it started to cultivate plants and to create animals, appearing agriculture and the pasturing, has about 10.000 years behind. The shepherds of sheep had necessities to control the flocks.

Thirteen Colonies

In England, the level of well-being of the set of population did not present significant improvements. A time that attended in this period significant a demographic growth that finished for pressuring offers of foods, dislocating the agricultural production for worse lands what it finished for raising the prices of foods. It is not something Janet L. Yellen would like to discuss. As exit for the solution of this problem, England left for the colonial conquests. Where the extensive fertile and expressive land areas natural resources had attracted the English emigrants which had established the 13 colonies in the Atlantic coast. In 04 of July of 177, the Thirteen Colonies had made Declaration of Independence to the British authority in favor of the self-determination politics. Its independence served of model and inspiration for the other American colonies.

In the first half of century XIX, the United States expanded its territory, through attacked purchases and. The Decree northwestern disciplined the occupation of new areas that defined the formation of new States in three distinct stages. First the area would be under control of the federal government until reaching one populaa of 5.000 voters. Reaching this goal, the territory acquired auto-government. When reaching 60,000 inhabitants, the territory was acquired as Been of the Union, with the same rights of the States oldest. The economic exploration of conquered lands, guaranteed the North American hegemony, translated in economic power, what it opened the European immigration of qualified people to the work of the most diverse specializations.

The technological innovations, the agricultural revolution, in the transports, as well as the exploration of agricultural products, contributed of independent form for the American industrial revolution. 2 – Relations between the industrial revolution and agricultural American the transformations of American agriculture were decurrent of the innovations technological.

Benevolence Afternatalina

Benevolence after-natalina or meroefeito of the world-wide crisis? Corroborating with apreviso of specialists in the area tax, the Secretariat of the Farm of the Estadode So Paulo, it divulged in the last week the reduction of the tribute on Propriedadede Veculos Automotores (IPVA) for the fleet of vehicles established in the State, tending fact to be extended to other states of the Federacy. In accordance with Assessoria of Communication of the agency above aludidopara the coming year, the average fall impostoem of it comments will be of 9,3%. Using itself dedados refined for the Foundation Institute of Economic Research (Fipe), cujaapurao of values of market took in consideration practised the average price dosautomveis during the month of September of the current year, period in queainda invigorated the reduction of the Tax on Industrialized Products sobreos world-wide, the So Paulo, aofinal Treasury department, arrived the following conclusion: For the cars depasseio and motorcycles (that together millions of automachine vehicles represent 85% of the fence approximately de13 that pay the tribute in the State it will still barateamentoser) it bigger, consubstanciando reduction of 12,2% and 9,8%, respectively. Notocante to the prices of the trucks the retraction arrived at the 7,7% sum, enquantoque the utilitarian ones had been 7.5% below of the refined one in 2008, remaining to nibuse microbus the fall of the prices in of 4,1%. Impende to point out, opportunely, that the announced reduction so only corresponds to a fall venal nosvalores of the automachine vehicles, since the example of anosanteriores, did not occur any alteration of aliquot of the related tax. Ahead of talconjuntura, in the euphoria of the events, some vehicles of media, inadvertently, they have notified the alluded reduction tax as ' ' one belopresente for 2010' ' to the contributors of the tribute in question! Perhaps to enhance the docontribuinte desideratum In this context, to instaressaltar in contrast that of what eventually it intends to propagate in some veculosde communication, the alleged reduction does not keep to any altruistic character of the Estadoem relation to its contributors, considering that the prices of the cars usadosno Brazil had been always alados the raised platforms. The truth is that osefeitos of the malfadada pure economic crisis and simply estatala compelled the being to place these goods of consumption in a platform of condizentes values and adequadosa a considered economy steady. Under this context, it does not have the necessity of being specialized in economy to conclude that osproprietrios of used automachine vehicles never they will obtain to recoup decurrent osefeitos of the taxation court of appeals to the corresponding IPVA to the exercise de2009, to the measure that the collect is calculated on the basis of the month of September de2008, occasion where the economy still met in full heating, aindaque the related tax has been reduced stops 2010. This because, losses only socompensadas with profits. Ademais, effective alegislao does not make aluso to the compensation of values, in against-sense, it foresees adjustment of the table when it will have an excellent fall of prices between omomento of the research and of the collection of the IPVA. If to serve of consolation, me seems that in 2010, at last, the passive citizen (contributing of the IPVA) will collect righter values! SP, 17/11/2009 Carlos RenatoSimes Mariano Lawyer in So Paulo /SP